- Comitatus Ė An oath of loyalty between warrior and lord ensuring that neither leaves the battlefield before one another. This oath also includes an oath to avenge the life of a fallen man in oneís company.
- Wyrd - This term can best be described as the medieval idea of fate, divine intervention, or godís will.
- Scop - A scop was a poet, shaper, maker, creator of the Middle Ages. A scop would have been the primary form of entertainment, aside from mead and beer, in the Middle Ages. He was later replaced by the minstrel or troubadour.
- Wergild - A sum of money or treasure paid in exchange for the wrongful death or any crime of another to the victim's family by the wrongdoer.
- Hrunting - The sword given to Beowulf by Unferth before his battle against Grendelís mother, that later proves to be useless.
- Scyld Scefing - The legendary ancestor of Hrothgar, who is the focus of the Prologue to the poem. Scyld Scefing is said to have been the most heroic as well as best leader and an example for all lords to follow since he was able to conquer foreign tribes and collect tribute from them.
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