Computer Science





CS232/Computer Organization





4 Hours per Week










CS 122





M. Mano, Computer System Architecture, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1993.




L. Null & J. Lobur, Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture, 3rd Edition, Jones &Bartlett Learning, 2012.




Computer Magazines and Journals








Spring 2015





Dr. A. Joseph



Course Description: Introduction to major combinational circuits and sequential circuits including digital logic, gates, decoders, registers, counters, and memory units. Data representation including such concepts as number systems and their operations and conversions as well as complements and fixed and floating point representation. Other concepts include microoperations; organization and design of a basic computer; introduction to assembly language programming; interrupts and interrupts processing; central processing unit; instruction design tradeoff -- RISC versus CISC; pipeline, vector processing, and multiprocessors versus multicomputers.










Dr. A. Joseph



163 Williams St., 2nd floor, Room 231



212 346 1492


Office Hours:


Monday: 11:00 am – 3:00 pm

Wednesday: 11:00 am – 12:00 pm






Grading Policy


Final examination:


40%        (40%)

In-class examinations (4 -- 30 minutes exams )


30%        (30%) [best 3 of 4]

In-Class Quizzes



Team/class participation:

Coordinator/Reporter/observer (document):


Class Activity/Preparation & in class Performance


0%          (0%)

0%           (0%) [Lowest grade is dropped]

0%           (0%) [Lowest grade is dropped]

5%           (5%)

0%           (0%)

0%           (0%) [Due: ]

5%           (5%)



10%          (10%) [No late homework is accepted]

Project/Report & Presentation:


15%         (15%)

Team members’ average performance (bonus):

Above 87%:

76% -- 87%:

65% -- 75%:

Below 65%:


0 – 0%    (0%)





Extra credit assignment (optional):


Note: Only for students who are otherwise fulfilling all of the other course requirements. It is not intended to be a substitute for any of the regular class assignments.


10% (Due by week 12 and no later)


Note 1: The final exam is cumulative; it consists of two parts: one is common to New York and Pleasantville campuses.

Note 2: Non-team member students are assigned grades based on the policy outlined within the parentheses.


Final grade Determination


Above 92%

90% -- 92%



87% -- 89%



83% -- 86%



80% -- 82%



76% -- 79%



70% -- 75%



65% -- 69%



60% -- 64%



Below 60%



Note: Grade is computed to the nearest whole number.

Program learning outcomes and major topics [ABET student outcomes: a, c]


An ability to design, implement and evaluate a computer-based systems, process, component, or program to meet desired needs.


Learning Objectives/Outcomes


After taking this course, the students should be able to the following:


1.       Understand the organization and operation of modern computers


2.       Understand how Boolean logic is used to design combinatorial and sequential circuits, and the functions of the major computer components including register, CPU, program counter, bus system, cache, memory, and microprogramming controller


3.       Demonstrate how to convert numbers in different number systems


4.       Understand how assembly language instructions are translated into machine instructions and then into microprograms to be executed by the computer hardware


5.       Analyze an assembly language program


6.       Understand how the instruction set is defined by a computer architecture


7.       Understand design tradeoffs including RISC versus CISC


8.       Show and discuss the relative utility of signed-magnitude and two’s complement representation of negative integers


9.       Understand and can differentiate between the different types of micooperations (register transfer, arithmetic, logic, and shift) and their uses


10.    Understand how interrupts support event-driven computing including input/output operations


11.    Show how reverse Polish notation and stack arrangement of registers are use to evaluate arithmetic expressions


12.    Understand how to speed up computing with pipelined instruction execution, multiprocessors, and multicomputers.


13.    Develop team-building, social, and organizational skills that they can further develop in other classes and in their professional careers through demonstrated ability to work collaboratively effectively in teams as well as able to communicate effectively orally and writing.



Tentative Examination Schedule:


Course Section

In-class Exam Dates

Project Submissions & Presentation

Final Exam Date

CS 232/CRN: 20157

2/9; 2/25; 3/25; & 4/15/2015

April 22, 2015

May 13, 2015 (Tentative)


Class meeting Schedule


Course Section

Day, Time, and Location of Class Sessions

First and Last Day of Class

CS 232/CRN: 20157

Mondays and Wednesdays : 3:30pm – 5:30pm;


First day of class: January 26, 2015

Last day of class:  May 16, 2015.




Academic Expectations and Resources: In order to do well in class students are expected to study 2 to 3 hours per week for every credit hour registered for. Students should also be reminded that some useful academic resources to support students’ success include the following.

Writing Center:

Tutorial Services:

Library Services:

Center for Academic Excellence

Academic Policies and General Regulations.


Academic Integrity: Students must accept the responsibility to be honest and to respect ethical standards in meeting their academic assignments and requirements. Integrity in the academic life requires that students demonstrate intellectual and academic achievement independent of all assistance except that authorized by the instructor. The use of an outside source in any paper, report or submission for academic credit without the appropriate acknowledgment is plagiarism. It is unethical to present as one’s own work the ideas, words, or representations of another without proper indication of the source. Therefore, it is the student’s responsibility to give credit for any quotation, idea, or data borrowed from an outside source.


Students who fail to meet the responsibility for academic integrity subject themselves to sanctions ranging from a reduction in grade or failure in the assignment or course in which the offense occurred to suspension or dismissal from the University. Individual schools and programs may have more specific procedures for violations of academic integrity. Therefore, students are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the academic integrity policies of the University and of individual schools and programs in which they are enrolled. Students penalized for failing to maintain academic integrity who wish to appeal such action must follow the appeal procedure outlined below in the “Grades Appeal Process” section or that of the individual school or program in which they are enrolled if such school or program has a separate appeal procedure in place.



Students with Disabilities: Procedure for Students with Disabilities Who Wish to Obtain Reasonable Accommodations for a Course:  The University's commitment to equal educational opportunities for students with disabilities includes providing reasonable accommodations for the needs of students with disabilities. To request an a reasonable accommodation for a qualified disability  a student with a disability must self-identify and register with the Office of Disability Services for his or her campus. No one, including faculty, is authorized to evaluate the need for or grant a request for an accommodation except the Office of Disability Services. Moreover, no one, including faculty, is authorized to contact the Office of Disability Services on behalf of a student. For further information, please see Resources for Students with Disabilities at


Note 1: To facilitate and promote learning, you are encouraged to download the lectures from Blackboard and study them along with the material in the textbook. All lessons will be posted on Blackboard within a week of the lesson being introduced. Use the textbook to complement and perhaps, at times, expand and elucidate ideas presented in the lecture notes. Note that mere reading is not studying.


Note 2: Lessons will be presented using the team-based learning strategy inclusive of many techniques such as those highlighting active learning, inquiry-based lecture-discussion and problem based learning, collaborative learning and problem-solving. There will be many opportunities to practice problem solving and the beginning of and throughout each lesson. The solutions to the homework problems will be provided to you in class as a means to explain the course concepts or through Blackboard postings. To get the most out of the course, you are encouraged to follow and keep up with the reading assignments and genuinely attempt each homework problem before coming to class. For those problems you cannot solve, determine the nature of your difficulty and bring it up in class or during office hours. The idea is to come to class prepared and willing to learn as well as ready to ask questions about the course materials and problems. You will be tested as individuals and as teams at the beginning of each major phase of course content, which is about four or five. The mantra of this course is learning, learning, learning and more learning!


Note 3: In the interest of learning, it is very important that you foster an inquisitive mind – do all the required assignments. Failing to do so may diminish your ability to get the most out of each lesson and the class. Studying is NOT mere reading of the textbook and class notes and slides, it’s an intimate interaction between you and the information provided to you in the class notes and slides and the textbook; it requires that you be mindful of the information.




Note 5: Learning is the central objective of this course; the teaching will be done to facilitate learning.


Note 6: It is very important you read and familiarize yourself with SCSIS Statement of Student Responsibilities (see Blackboard).


Note 7: You should devote at least 8 hours per week to prepare for the course – more may be needed depending on your rate of sufficiently understanding the course content and mastering it applications as well as being successful achieving your desired grade.


Note 8: You are strongly encouraged to spend an appropriate length of time to research, develop, and implement the project; during the development and implementation process seek my help as needed to resolve any issue you may encounter. Your project should reflect your personal thoughts and understanding of the assignment and must be built on sound theory that is differentiable from your personal thoughts.











Digital logic circuits (logic gates, Boolean algebra, combinational circuits, and flip-flops);

Digital components (decoders, multiplexers, registers, counters tri-state switches, buses, and memory units); and Data representation (data types, 2’s complement, fixed-point, and floating-point); Boot sequence and POST; Master boot record and partitions; Directories and file systems, and hiding information; Main issues disk drives units; Physical construction of disk drives -- heads, tracks, and cylinders; Formation of addressable elements; Encoding methods and formats for disks; Formatting process; and Hard disk interfaces.

Read: Chap. 1.

Prob.: 1, 3-6, 7, 11, 14, 15, and 17.

Read: Chap 2.

Prob.: 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 19-23.

Read: Chap. 3.

Prob.: 1-5, 7-10, 13, 16-17, 20, and 23.





Register Transfer and Microoperations: register transfer (language, and bus and memory); Microoperations (shift, logic, and arithmetic); and Arithmetic logic shift unit (ALU).

Read: Chap. 4.

Prob.: 1-4, 6-9, 11, 18, 19, 21 and 23.





Basic computer Organization and Design: Instruction codes; Timing and control; Instruction cycle; Computer instructions; Computer registers; Instruction cycle; Memory reference instructions; Input/output and interrupt; and Design of accumulator logic and basic computer

Read: Chap. 5.

Prob.:1-7, 9-10, 12, and 15-18





Programming  the Basic Computer: Machine language; Assembly language; Assembler; Program loops, subroutines, and Programming arithmetic and logic operations

Read: Chap. 6.

Prob. 1-7, 11-14, and 18





Central Processing Unit (CPU): Register and stack organization; Instruction formats; Addressing modes; Data transfer and manipulation; Program control; and Comparison of CISC and RISC architectures.

Read Chap.: 8.

Prob.: 6-9, 11, and 13-16.





Pipeline and Multiprocessing: Implementations of simple datapaths; Instruction pipelining; Introduction to instruction-level parallelism; Superscalar architecture; Branch prediction; Prefetching; Multithreading; Introduction to SIMD, MIMD, VLIW, and EPIC; Systolic architecture; Interconnection networks (hypercube, shuffle-exchange, mesh, and crossbar); Shared memory systems; Cache coherence; and Memory models and memory consistency.

Read Chap. 9 (sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7) and 13 (sections 1, 2, 4, 5)

Prob.: 9/2, 3, 4, 7, 9 and 13/1, 3, 6, 8, 13, 14.





Memory Organization: Memory hierarchy; Main memory; Auxiliary memory; Associative memory; Cache memory, Virtual memory, and Memory management.

Read Chap. 12.

Prob.: 1-8, 13, 15-20, 23, and 24.





Project presentation and submission: projects presented to class and submitted.






Final Examination.



Note 1: A new topic might begin with a quiz – this quiz might be done individually and as a team.




Note 2: This course is structured around purposely formed diverse small collaborative groups designed to operate in a team-based learning environment. Students are encouraged to work together in their respective groups to form effective and productive teams where individuals share their learning experiences in course, help each other with learning difficulties, spend time to get to know each other, develop cultural awareness, diversity sensitivity, consensus building skills, and spend time each week to discuss and help one another with the course work (content and assignments). Each team member is responsible for the completion and submission of each assignment. Team members will be asked to sit in adjacent seats. Each team member will be individually graded as well as graded as teams and by their team members. Exams are either individual or team effort. All exams are closed book.


Team project: Students may be put teams of two to five individuals who will participate in a product development or research supported by a technical report. The project may involve the use of a low level and/or high-level programming or algorithms. In the project, students will satisfy a market niche and/or solve a technical problem, and then demonstrate their knowledge, understanding, and implications of the solution. Grade assignment to individual team members will be based upon the member’s personal involvement with his or her team’s project along but not limited to the following items: programming, codes testing and correction, documentation, report writing, proofreading, and any combination of the above.


Web support: This course will be supported with most or all of the following Blackboard postings: lesson questions, lessons (PowerPoint), instructions and guidelines pertaining to the course, computer architecture and related news, team and class discussions boards, email correspondence about the course, homework solutions, examination grades, and miscellaneous course related activities and information including computer organization related links to the Internet, teamwork and team-building skills.


Supplementary materials: Handouts in class or web postings of current events and issues affecting computer architecture.


Business Model: Each team may be viewed as a small business that is seeking creative and innovative ways to maximize its product, academic outcome or average group grade. A satisfactory product is the break-even team average grade of 78%. Teams getting average grades above 78% are profitable enterprises.


In class activity and participation: Students are recommended to bring to class current newsworthy events in computer organization/architecture and related news to share with the class. Students will inform the class of the news events and their significance to computing.  


Since most learning takes place outside of the classroom, teams are encouraged to function outside of the classroom. Team activities will be reinforced inside of the class during the lessons. Student teams are encouraged to function cohesively and to participate in all class activities.  


Each team member must note that your friendliness towards each other, the amount of activity each team member bring to bear within and on behalf of the team, and the intensity of the team interaction contribute to the team’s performance and the performance of team member.


Students are strongly encouraged to download the posted lessons from Blackboard, review them, and should ask pertinent questions about the material in these lessons.


Every effort will be made to present each lesson using the storytelling, problem solving, or problem based learning strategies supported with subsequent discussion on the central points of the lesson.


The key elements of a story are the following: casualty, conflict, complication, and character.


The following excerpts about collaborative learning are from research documents:

·         In the university environment, educational success and social adjustments  depend primarily on the availability and effectiveness of developmental academic support systems.


·         Most organized learning occurs in some kind of group  group characteristics and group processes significantly contribute to success or failure in the classroom and directly effect the quality and quantity of learning within the group.


·         Group work invariably produces tensions that are normally absent, unnoticed, or suppressed in traditional classes.  Students bring with them a variety of personality types, cognitive styles, expectations about their own role in the classroom and their relationship to the teacher, peers, and the subject matter of the course.


·         Collaborative learning involves both management and decision-making skills to choose among competing needs.  The problems encountered with collaboration have management, political, competence, and ethical dimensions


·         The two key underlying principles of the collaborative pedagogy are that active student involvement is a more powerful learning tool than the passive attendance and that students working in groups can make for more effective learning than students acting alone.   The Favorable outcomes of collaborative learning include greater conceptual understanding, a heightened ability to apply concepts, and improved attendance.  Moreover, students become responsible for their own learning is likely to increase their skills for coping with ambiguity, uncertainty, and continuous change, all of which are characteristics of contemporary organizations.


Who creates a new activity in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving success and growth by identifying opportunities and putting together the required resources to benefit from them?


Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways to of looking at problems and opportunities.

Innovation is the ability to apply creative solutions to those problems and opportunities to enhance or to enrich people’s lives