Chapter 11 SOLUTIONS 397

11.1 Design Tools 398

11.1.1 Conceptual Design 398

11.1.2 Process Design 399

11.1.3 Schema Design 400

11.2 Database Systems 401

11.2.1 Mapped Systems 402

11.2.2 Native Systems 405

11.2.3 Best Practices 406

11.3 Middleware 407

11.3.1 e-speak 407

11.3.2 RosettaNet 409

11.3.3 BizTalk 414

11.4 Application Servers 419

11.5 Authoring 419

11.5.1 Creating and Publishing Text-Based Content 419

11.5.2 WML Tools for Mobile Applications 421

11.5.3 Multimedia 422

11.5.4 Converters 424

11.6 Content Management 424