Chapter 4 MEANING 169

4.1 Formal Semantics 170

4.1.1 Formal Semantics and Constraints 171

4.1.2 Constraints in Schema Definitions 173

4.2 Ontologies 174

ˇ  R. Davis, .H. Shrobe, and P. Szolovits, What is a Knowledge Representation? AI Magazine, 14(1):17-33, 1993

ˇ  W. Pidcock, What are the differences between a vocabulary, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology, and a metamodel?

ˇ  D. McGuinness, Ontologies Come of Age

ˇ        Formal Ontology and Information Systems            PDF


Tools for Ontology construction - writing your own and/or using an editor (like early days of HTML). Notation3 - an easy way to write down relationships; "RDF for sketching"; tutorial on N3. Protégé, a GUI for model construction; tutorial on Protege. Using existing schemas, models, ontologies; building on others' work and seeing how it contributes to interoperability. Examples, lots of examples.

Reading Assignments:



4.2.1 Ontological Depth 174

4.2.2 Operational Ontologies: DAML and OIL 180


4.2.3 Best Practices 183

4.3 Philosophical Excursus 184

4.4 Context 185

4.4.1 Ontologies and Contexts 186

FORMALIZING CONTEXT (Expanded Notes)       PDF


4.4.2 Binding to Contexts: Schema Adjunct 189


Semantic Web

THE Semantic WEB: A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities   PDF

Science and the Semantic web            PDF