CS835 - Data and Document Representation & Processing

Lecture 2 – XML I

 eXtended Markup Language (XML)

Recommended textbooks:

S. Holzner, Sams Teach yourself XML in 21 Days, 3rd edition, 2004.

C. Bates, XML in Theory and Practice, Wiley, 2003.

 

The following examples are from Holzner:

 

Sample HTML doc:

Text View

Browser View

<HTML>

   <HEAD>

       <TITLE>Hello From HTML</TITLE>

   </HEAD>

   <BODY>

       <CENTER>

           <H1>

              An HTML Document

           </H1>

       </CENTER>

       This is an HTML document!

   </BODY>

</HTML>

 

 

 

Sample XML doc:

Text View

Browser View

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>

- <document>

  <heading>Hello From XML</heading>

  <message>This text is inside a <message> element.</message>

  </document>

 

 

Sample XML with Stylesheets:

Test View

Browser View

Xml files contents:

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<?xml-stylesheet type="text/css" href="ch01_04.css"?>

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

Stylesheet file contents (ch01_04.css):

heading {display: block; font-size: 24pt; color: #ff0000; text-align: center}

message{display: block; font-size: 18pt; color: #0000ff; text-align: center}

 

Extracting Content: JavaScript:

Text View

 

<HTML>

   <HEAD>

        <TITLE>

            Retrieving data from an XML document

        </TITLE>

 

        <XML ID="firstXML" SRC="ch01_02.xml"></XML>

 

        <SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript">

            function getData()

            {

                 xmldoc= document.all("firstXML").XMLDocument;

 

                 nodeDoc = xmldoc.documentElement;

                 nodeHeading = nodeDoc.firstChild;

 

                 outputMessage = "Heading: " +

                       nodeHeading.firstChild.nodeValue;

                 message.innerHTML=outputMessage;

            } 

        </SCRIPT>

   </HEAD>

 

   <BODY>

       <CENTER>

           <H1>

                Retrieving data from an XML document

           </H1>

 

           <DIV ID="message"></DIV>

           <P>

           <INPUT TYPE="BUTTON" VALUE="Read the heading"

               ONCLICK="getData()">

       </CENTER>

   </BODY>

</HTML>

 

Source Document: ch01_02.xml

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

 

      

 

XML Editors:

Amaya - free

XML Spy – free home edition

XMLWriter – 30 day trial

 

XML Structure

 

XML Tags

Tags

o       Valid  tags begin with A to Z, _ , a to z

o       Second characters may be digits 0 – 9, - , and .

o       Tag names are case sensitive

o       Tag names cannot include white space

 

Elements – composed of two tags:

<book> XML in Theory and Practice </book>

<name> Professor F. T. Marchese </name>

 

Rules:

o       An element must have start and end tags unless it is an empty element

o       Start and end tags must form a matched pair

 

Empty elements –

Only have one tag: Syntax …<    />

<heading/>

<heading text = “Hello from XML” />

 

Root elements:

o       Each well formed document must contain a root element with any legal name

o       This element contains all other elements

e.g.

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

 

Nesting elements: tags must pair-up inside XML so they are closed in reverse order:

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

 

Character Encoding

o       ASCII – 1 byte – 256 characters

o       Unicode – 2 bytes 65536 characters

o       UCS – Universal character system - 4 bytes – 4.3 billion characters

 

XML supports:

 

US-ASCII – US ASCII

UTF-8  -- Compressed Unicode -- two bytes – 1st byte ASCII , 2nd byte Unicode subset.

UTF-16 – Compressed UCS

ISO-10646-UCS-2 -- Unicode

 

In practice… XML “processors” support UTF-8 

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<document>

   <heading>

       Hello From XML

   </heading>

   <message>

       This is an XML document!

   </message>

</document>

 

Character Reference

Character

Sequence

<

&lt;

>

&gt;

‘

&apos;

&

&amp;

“

&quot;

 

e.g.

<message> This text is inside a &lt;message&gt; element. </message>

Result: This text is inside a <message> element.

 

Comments

<!-- This is a comment -->

 

Attributes

Attributes may appear in:

o       Elements

o       Processing instructions

o       XML declarations

 

Syntax:

attributename = “value”

 

e.g.

 

<brush width=”10” height =”5” color=”cyan” />

<point x=”10” y=”100” />

<book title=”Home Alone 2” review=”bad” />

 

CDATA

CDATA are sections of the XML document that are not parsed.

CDATA – Character Data

PCDATA – Parsed Character Data

 

<?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes" ?>

- <document>

- <text>

  Here's how the element starts:

- <![CDATA[

        <employee status="retired">
            <name>
                <lastname>Kelly</lastname>
                <firstname>Grace</firstname>
            </name>
            <hiredate>October 15, 2005</hiredate>
            <projects>
                <project>
                    <product>Printer</product>
                    <id>111</id>
                    <price>$111.00</price>
                </project>
                    .
                    .
                    .
    

  ]]>

  </text>

  </document>

 

 

XML Namespaces

Namespace – a unique identifier for a set of names within an XML document

 

Declaring a Namespace: assign xmlns:prefix attribute to a unique identifier, e.g.

xmlns:hr=http://www.superduperbigco.com/human_resources

 

 The URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers) or URLs specified can point to a document such as a DTD or schema.

Original document

- <document>

- <employee>

- <name>

  <lastname>Kelly</lastname>

  <firstname>Grace</firstname>

  </name>

  <hiredate>October 15, 2005</hiredate>

- <projects>

- <project>

  <product>Printer</product>

  <id>111</id>

  <price>$111.00</price>

  </project>

- <project>

  <product>Laptop</product>

  <id>222</id>

  <price>$989.00</price>

  </project>

  </projects>

  </employee>

  </document>

 

 

Document using namespaces

- <hr:employee xmlns:hr="http://www.superduperbigco.com/human_resources" xmlns:boss="http://www.superduperbigco.com/big_boss">

- <hr:name>

  <hr:lastname>Kelly</hr:lastname>

  <hr:firstname>Grace</hr:firstname>

  </hr:name>

  <hr:hiredate>October 15, 2005</hr:hiredate>

  <boss:comment>Needs much supervision.</boss:comment>

- <hr:projects>

- <hr:project>

  <hr:product>Printer</hr:product>

  <hr:id>111</hr:id>

  <hr:price>$111.00</hr:price>

  </hr:project>

- <hr:project>

  <hr:product>Laptop</hr:product>

  <hr:id>222</hr:id>

  <hr:price>$989.00</hr:price>

  </hr:project>

  </hr:projects>

  </hr:employee>

 

 

Document Type Definitions (DTDs)

o       A DTD defines the formal rules of a documents structure

o       Lists elements, attributes, and entities that may be used in the document

o       Defines the relationship among elements, attributes, and entities

o       DTDs outline the tree structure of an XML document

o       DTDs have own structure and syntax

 

DTD Structure

o       DTD is a series of declarations of the form <!        >

o       DTDs contain 4 keywords:

o      ELEMENT – which defines a tag

o      ATTRIBUTE – which defines an attribute of an ELEMENT

o      ENTITY – which is used to define an ENTITY

o      NOTATION – which defines a data type

 

e.g. from Bates:

<!DOCTYPE letter[

  <!ELEMENT letter (address)>

  <!ELEMENT address (line1, line2?, line3*, city, (county|state)?, country?, code?)>

  <!ELEMENT line1 (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT line2 (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT line3 (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT city (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT county (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT state (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT country (#PCDATA)>

  <!ELEMENT code (#PCDATA)>

]>

o       DTD describes structure of XML document starting with root node – letter

o       DTD is declared by using a <!DOCTYPE> element

o       <!DOCTYPE> element syntax:

o      <!DOCTYPE rootname [DTD]>

o      <!DOCTYPE rootname SYSTEM URI>

o      <!DOCTYPE rootname SYSTEM URI [DTD]>

 

Elements

o      Each tag is declared as an ELEMENT

o      Each element may contain data or more elements, and may have further attributes

o       The structure must be declared as 1st element, e.g. <!ELEMENT letter (address)>

o      ELEMENT content follows name and is in parentheses

o      Content is a list of items separated by “,” or “|” – known as content model

o      Root node has another ELEMENT as its content -(address)

 

o       Address element contains all components:

<!ELEMENT address (line1, line2?, line3*, city, (county|state)?, country?, code?)>

o       Comma between elements means that all may be in XML document

o       Element ordering is logical for human understanding, not required by XML.

o       Parentheses used for grouping, and | is logical OR

o       Symbols after items signify appearance:

Symbol

Example

Meaning

Asterisk

item*

Item appears zero or more times

Comma

(item1, item2, item3)

Separates items in sequence

None

item

Item appears exactly once

Parentheses

(item1, item2)

Encloses group of items

Pipe

(item1 | item2)

Separates a set of alternatives

Plus

Item+

Item appears at least once

Question Mark

Item?

Item appears once or not at all

 

Text Content

o       Parsed character data - <!ELEMENT line1 (#PCDATA)>

o       Mixed content model - <!ELEMENT line1 (#PCDATA | house_number | street_name)*>

o      Must obey this form -> #PCDATA -> other elements separated by pipe -> followed by *

 

Attributes

o       Attributes give additional info about element or content

o       Attributes declared separately and associated with element:

<!ATTLIST element attribute type default>

o       element – name of element to which the attribute applies

o       attribute  - attribute name

o       type – XML data type

o       default -  XML attribute defaults

e.g.

<!ELEMENT country (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST country

continent (Europe | Asia | Africa | North America )”Asia”

language CDATA #IMPLIED>

 

o       element – country

o       attribute  - continent – followed by an enumerated list of values

o       default -  Asia

 

o       attribute  - language – followed by CDATA

o       default -  #IMPLIED

 

XML Attribute Types

Type

Usage

CDATA

Character data – not parsed

ENTITY

Attribute values is reference to an entity declared elsewhere in DTD

ENTITIES

Multiple entities referenced

ID

Identifies a location within document

IDREF

References an ID declared elsewhere in DTD – used for hyperlinking in document

IDREFS

Multiple Ids linked

NMTOKEN

Value can be word or token

NMTOKENS

A list of tokens

NOTATION

NOTATION declared elsewhere

Enumeration

List of possible values in parens

 

XML Attribute Defaults

Default

Usage

#REQUIRED

Value must be given for each element that has an attribute

#IMPLIED

Attribute is optional – no value must be given

#FIXED value

Attribute must have value given

Default

Default value is given for attribute

 

Entities

o       XML document separated into number of components called Entities

o       Each entity has a unique name

o       Entities use to:

o      Split large documents

o      Content needs to be used in a number of places with document without duplication

o      Different systems may render same content in different ways

o       Declaration:

o      <!ENTITY name definition>

o      <!ENTITY name SYSTEM system_identifier [NOTATION]>

o      <!ENTITY name PUBLIC [public_identifier] system_identifier [NOTATION]>

 

o       Internal entity - simplest definition –– within DTD – wherever referenced in XML document content in DTD will be substituted for reference.

o      Internal entity definition - <!ENTITY name definition>

o       External reference – refers to content outside DTD and XML file – may be on remote system

o      <!ENTITY locationmap SYSTEM “./images/home.png” NDATA PNG>

§       URI - “./images/home.png”

§       NDATA – Notation data type follows

§       PNG – type of data

Notations

NOTATIONS normally specify applications that can process data:

e.g.

<!NOTATION PNG SYSTEM “/usr/bin/display”>

<!NOTATION gif SYSTEM "gifviewer.exe">

 

Using DTDs

Internal DTD –

<!DOCTYPE rootnode[

 

]>

 

External DTD –

<?xml version="1.0"?>

 

<!DOCTYPE rootnode SYSTEM | PUBLIC [public_identifier] URI>

 

 

Example: from Holzner

XML file

<?xml version = "1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>

<!DOCTYPE document SYSTEM "ch04_07.dtd">                                             

<document>

   <employee>

       <name>

           <lastname>Kelly</lastname>

           <firstname>Grace</firstname>

       </name>

       <hiredate>October 15, 2005</hiredate>

       <projects>

           <project>

               <product>Printer</product>

               <id>111</id>

               <price>$111.00</price>

           </project>

           <project>

               <product>Laptop</product>

               <id>222</id>

               <price>$989.00</price>

           </project>

       </projects>

   </employee>

</document>

DTD file

<!ELEMENT document (employee)*>                

<!ELEMENT employee (name, hiredate, projects)>         

<!ELEMENT name (lastname, firstname)>           

<!ELEMENT lastname (#PCDATA)>                  

<!ELEMENT firstname (#PCDATA)>                 

<!ELEMENT hiredate (#PCDATA)>                       

<!ELEMENT projects (project)*>                      

<!ELEMENT project (product,id,price)>         

<!ELEMENT product (#PCDATA)>                   

<!ELEMENT id (#PCDATA)>                    

<!ELEMENT price (#PCDATA)>                      

 

Schema

Ref: Schema Tutorial – series - http://www.zvon.org/xxl/XMLSchemaTutorial/Output/series.html

 

XML Schemas:

o       Provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents through XML itself.

o       Define a richer set of data types such as booleans, numbers, dates and times, and currencies than the more traditional DTD

o       XML Schemas make it easier to validate documents based on namespaces

o       Defined in the W3C's XML Schema Working Group

 

Purpose - to define the legal building blocks of an XML document

An XML Schema:

 

 

Using Schema:

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

      <!-- Define the actual document -->

      <xsd:element name="letter">

      </xsd:element>

</xsd:schema>

o       Content of schema – mostly element definitions

o       Elements may contain sub-elements (e.g. string or numbers, or both)

o      Simple types - Elements that contain only data

o      Complex types – all others

 

Example: Mortgage file (Holzner)

XML file

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<document documentDate="2005-03-02">

   <comment>Good risk</comment>

   <mortgagee phone="888.555.1234">

       <name>James Blandings</name>

       <location>1234 299th St</location>

       <city>New York</city>

       <state>NY</state>

   </mortgagee>

   <mortgages>

       <mortgage loanNumber="66 7777 88">

           <property>The Hackett Place</property>

           <date>2005-03-01</date>

           <loanAmount>80000</loanAmount>

           <term>15</term>

       </mortgage>

       <mortgage loanNumber="11 8888 22">

           <property>123 Acorn Drive</property>

           <date>2005-03-01</date>

           <loanAmount>90000</loanAmount>

           <term>15</term>

       </mortgage>

       <mortgage loanNumber="33 4444 11">

           <property>99 West Pocusset St</property>

           <date>2005-03-02</date>

           <loanAmount>100000</loanAmount>

           <term>30</term>

       </mortgage>

       <mortgage loanNumber="55 3333 88">

           <property>19 Johnson Place</property>

           <date>2005-03-02</date>

           <loanAmount>110000</loanAmount>

           <term>30</term>

       </mortgage>

       <mortgage loanNumber="22 6666 99">

           <property>345 Notingham Court</property>

           <date>2005-03-02</date>

           <loanAmount>120000</loanAmount>

           <term>30</term>

       </mortgage>

   </mortgages>

   <bank phone="888.555.8888">

       <name>XML Bank</name>

       <location>12 Schema Place</location>

       <city>New York</city>

       <state>NY</state>

   </bank>

</document>

XSD file

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

               <xsd:annotation>

                              <xsd:documentation>

           Mortgage record XML schema.

       </xsd:documentation>

               </xsd:annotation>

               <xsd:element name="document" type="documentType"/>

               <xsd:complexType name="documentType">

                              <xsd:sequence>

                                             <xsd:element ref="comment"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="mortgagee" type="recordType"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="mortgages" type="mortgagesType"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="bank" type="recordType"/>

                              </xsd:sequence>

                              <xsd:attribute name="documentDate" type="xsd:date"/>

               </xsd:complexType>

               <xsd:complexType name="recordType">

                              <xsd:sequence>

                                             <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="location" type="xsd:string"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/>

                                             <xsd:element name="state" type="xsd:string"/>

                              </xsd:sequence>

                              <xsd:attribute name="phone" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/>

               </xsd:complexType>

               <xsd:complexType name="mortgagesType">

                              <xsd:sequence>

                                             <xsd:element name="mortgage" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="8">

                                                            <xsd:complexType>

                                                                           <xsd:sequence>

                                                                                          <xsd:element name="property" type="xsd:string"/>

                                                                                          <xsd:element name="date" type="xsd:date" minOccurs="0"/>

                                                                                          <xsd:element name="loanAmount" type="xsd:decimal"/>

                                                                                          <xsd:element name="term">

                                                                                                         <xsd:simpleType>

                                                                                                                        <xsd:restriction base="xsd:integer">

                                                                                                                                       <xsd:maxInclusive value="30"/>

                                                                                                                        </xsd:restriction>

                                                                                                         </xsd:simpleType>

                                                                                          </xsd:element>

                                                                           </xsd:sequence>

                                                                           <xsd:attribute name="loanNumber" type="loanNumberType"/>

                                                            </xsd:complexType>

                                             </xsd:element>

                              </xsd:sequence>

               </xsd:complexType>

               <xsd:simpleType name="loanNumberType">

                              <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">

                                             <xsd:pattern value="\d{2} \d{4} \d{2}"/>

                              </xsd:restriction>

               </xsd:simpleType>

               <xsd:element name="comment" type="xsd:string"/>

</xsd:schema>

 

XML Schema Elements

XML Schema elements are grouped by their function: top level elements, particles, multiple XML documents and namespaces, identity constraints, attributes, named attributes, complex type definitions, and simple type definitions.

Top Level Elements

The following are elements that appear at the top level of a schema document.

Element

Description

annotation

Defines an annotation.

attribute

Declares an attribute.

attributeGroup

Groups a set of attribute declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group for complex type definitions.

complexType

Defines a complex type, which determines the set of attributes and the content of an element.

element

Declares an element.

group

Groups a set of element declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group into complex type definitions.

import

Identifies a namespace whose schema components are referenced by the containing schema.

include

Includes the specified schema document in the target namespace of the containing schema.

notation

Contains the definition of a notation to describe the format of non-XML data within an XML document. An XML Schema notation declaration is a reconstruction of XML 1.0 NOTATION declarations.

redefine

Allows simple and complex types, groups, and attribute groups that are obtained from external schema files to be redefined in the current schema.

simpleType

Defines a simple type, which determines the constraints on and information about the values of attributes or elements with text-only content.

Particles

The following are elements that can have minOccurs and maxOccurs attributes. Such elements always appear as part of a complex type definition or as part of a named model group.

Element

Description

all

Allows the elements in the group to appear (or not appear) in any order in the containing element.

any

Enables any element from the specified namespace(s) to appear in the containing sequence or choice element.

choice

Allows one and only one of the elements contained in the selected group to be present within the containing element.

element

Declares an element.

group

Groups a set of element declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group into complex type definitions.

sequence

Requires the elements in the group to appear in the specified sequence within the containing element.

Multiple XML Documents and Namespaces

The following are elements that bring in schema elements from other namespaces or redefine schema elements in the same namespace.

Element

Description

import

Identifies a namespace whose schema components are referenced by the containing schema.

include

Includes the specified schema document in the target namespace of the containing schema.

redefine

Allows simple and complex types, groups, and attribute groups that are obtained from external schema files to be redefined in the current schema.

Identity Constraints

The following are elements that are related to identity constraints.

Element

Description

field

Specifies an XML Path Language (XPath) expression that specifies the value (or one of the values) used to define an identity constraint (unique, key, and keyref elements).

key

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or set of values) must be a key within the specified scope. The scope of a key is the containing element in an instance document. A key must be unique, non-nillable, and always present.

keyref

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or set of values) correspond to those of the specified key or unique element.

selector

Specifies an XPath expression that selects a set of elements for an identity constraint (unique, key, and keyref elements).

unique

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or a combination of attribute or element values) must be unique within the specified scope. The value must be unique or nil.

Attributes

The following are elements that define attributes in schemas.

Element

Description

anyAttribute

Enables any attribute from the specified namespace(s) to appear in the containing complexType element or in the containing attributeGroup element.

attribute

Declares an attribute.

attributeGroup

Groups a set of attribute declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group for complex type definitions.

Named Schema Objects

The following are elements that define named constructs in schemas. Named constructs are referred to with a QName by other schema elements.

Element

Description

attribute

Declares an attribute.

attributeGroup

Groups a set of attribute declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group for complex type definitions.

complexType

Defines a complex type, which determines the set of attributes and the content of an element.

element

Declares an element.

group

Groups a set of element declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group into complex type definitions.

key

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or set of values) must be a key within the specified scope. The scope of a key is the containing element in an instance document. A key must be unique, non-nillable, and always present.

keyref

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or set of values) correspond to those of the specified key or unique element.

notation

Contains the definition of a notation to describe the format of non-XML data within an XML document. An XML Schema notation declaration is a reconstruction of XML 1.0 NOTATION declarations.

simpleType

Defines a simple type, which determines the constraints on and information about the values of attributes or elements with text-only content.

unique

Specifies that an attribute or element value (or a combination of attribute or element values) must be unique within the specified scope. The value must be unique or nil.

Complex Type Definitions

The following are elements that create complex type definitions.

Element

Description

all

Allows the elements in the group to appear (or not appear) in any order in the containing element.

annotation

Defines an annotation.

any

Enables any element from the specified namespace(s) to appear in the containing sequence or choice element.

anyAttribute

Enables any attribute from the specified namespace(s) to appear in the containing complexType element or in the containing attributeGroup element.

appinfo

Specifies information to be used by applications within an annotation element.

attribute

Declares an attribute.

attributeGroup

Groups a set of attribute declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group for complex type definitions.

choice

Allows one and only one of the elements contained in the selected group to be present within the containing element.

complexContent

Contains extensions or restrictions on a complex type that contains mixed content or elements only.

documentation

Specifies information to be read or used by users within an annotation element.

element

Declares an element.

extension (simpleContent)

Contains extensions on simpleContent. This extends a simple type or a complex type that has simple content by adding specified attribute(s), attribute groups(s) or anyAttribute.

extension (complexContent)

Contains extensions on complexContent.

group

Groups a set of element declarations so that they can be incorporated as a group into complex type definitions.

restriction (simpleContent)

Defines constraints on a simpleContent definition.

restriction (complexContent)

Defines constraints on a complexContent definition.

sequence

Requires the elements in the group to appear in the specified sequence within the containing element.

simpleContent

Contains extensions or restrictions on a complexType element with character data or a simpleType element as content and contains no elements.

Simple Type Definitions

The following are elements that create simple type definitions.

Element

Description

annotation

Defines an annotation.

appinfo

Specifies information to be used by applications within an annotation element.

documentation

Specifies information to be read or used by users within an annotation element.

element

Declares an element.

list

Defines a collection of a single simpleType definition.

restriction (simpleType)

Defines constraints on a simpleType definition

union

Defines a collection of multiple simpleType definitions.

 

Primitive XML Data Types

The following table lists primitive XML schema data types, facets that can be applied to the data type, and a description of the data type.

Facets can only appear once in a type definition except for enumeration and pattern facets. Enumeration and pattern facets can have multiple entries and are grouped together.

Data Type

Facets

Description

string

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents character strings.

boolean

pattern, whiteSpace

Represents Boolean values, which are either true or false.

decimal

enumeration, pattern, totalDigits, fractionDigits, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents arbitrary precision numbers.

float

pattern, enumeration, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents single-precision 32-bit floating-point numbers.

double

pattern, enumeration, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents double-precision 64-bit floating-point numbers.

duration

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a duration of time.

The pattern for duration is PnYnMnDTnHnMnS, where nY represents the number of years, nM the number of months, nD the number of days, T the date/time separator, nH the number of hours, nM the number of minutes, and nS the number of seconds.

dateTime

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a specific instance of time.

The pattern for dateTime is CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss where CC represents the century, YY the year, MM the month, and DD the day, preceded by an optional leading negative (-) character to indicate a negative number. If the negative character is omitted, positive (+) is assumed. The T is the date/time separator and hh, mm, and ss represent hour, minute, and second respectively. Additional digits can be used to increase the precision of fractional seconds if desired. For example, the format ss.ss... with any number of digits after the decimal point is supported. The fractional seconds part is optional.

This representation may be immediately followed by a "Z" to indicate Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or to indicate the time zone. For example, the difference between the local time and Coordinated Universal Time, immediately followed by a sign, + or -, followed by the difference from UTC represented as hh:mm (minutes is required). If the time zone is included, both hours and minutes must be present.

time

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents an instance of time that recurs every day.

The pattern for time is hh:mm:ss.sss with optional time zone indicator.

date

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a calendar date.

The pattern for date is CCYY-MM-DD with optional time zone indicator as allowed for dateTime.

gYearMonth

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a specific Gregorian month in a specific Gregorian year. A set of one-month long, nonperiodic instances.

The pattern for gYearMonth is CCYY-MM with optional time zone indicator.

gYear

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a Gregorian year. A set of one-year long, nonperiodic instances.

The pattern for gYear is CCYY with optional time zone indicator as allowed for dateTime.

gMonthDay

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a specific Gregorian date that recurs, specifically a day of the year such as the third of May. A gMonthDay is the set of calendar dates. Specifically, it is a set of one-day long, annually periodic instances.

The pattern for gMonthDay is --MM-DD with optional time zone indicator as allowed for date.

gDay

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a Gregorian day that recurs, specifically a day of the month such as the fifth day of the month. A gDay is the space of a set of calendar dates. Specifically, it is a set of one-day long, monthly periodic instances.

The pattern for gDay is ---DD with optional time zone indicator as allowed for date.

gMonth

enumeration, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, whiteSpace

Represents a Gregorian month that recurs every year. A gMonth is the space of a set of calendar months. Specifically, it is a set of one-month long, yearly periodic instances.

The pattern for gMonth is --MM-- with optional time zone indicator as allowed for date.

hexBinary

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents arbitrary hex-encoded binary data. A hexBinary is the set of finite-length sequences of binary octets. Each binary octet is encoded as a character tuple, consisting of two hexadecimal digits ([0-9a-fA-F]) representing the octet code.

base64Binary

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents Base64-encoded arbitrary binary data. A base64Binary is the set of finite-length sequences of binary octets.

anyURI

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents a URI as defined by RFC 2396. An anyURI value can be absolute or relative, and may have an optional fragment identifier.

QName

length, enumeration, pattern, maxLength, minLength, whiteSpace

Represents a qualified name. A qualified name is composed of a prefix and a local name separated by a colon. Both the prefix and local names must be an NCName. The prefix must be associated with a namespace URI reference, using a namespace declaration.

NOTATION

length, enumeration, pattern, maxLength, minLength, whiteSpace

Represents a NOTATION attribute type. A set of QNames.

 

Derived XML Data Types

The following table lists derived XML schema data types, facets that can be applied to the derived data type, and a description of the derived data type.

Data Type

Facets

Description

normalizedString

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents white space normalized strings. This data type is derived from string.

token

enumeration, pattern, length, minLength, maxLength, whiteSpace

Represents tokenized strings. This data type is derived from normalizedString.

language

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents natural language identifiers (defined by RFC 1766). This data type is derived from token.

IDREFS

length, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents the IDREFS attribute type. Contains a set of values of type IDREF.

ENTITIES

length, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents the ENTITIES attribute type. Contains a set of values of type ENTITY.

NMTOKEN

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents the NMTOKEN attribute type. An NMTOKEN is set of name characters (letters, digits, and other characters) in any combination. Unlike Name and NCName, NMTOKEN has no restrictions on the starting character. This data type is derived from token.

NMTOKENS

length, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents the NMTOKENS attribute type. Contains a set of values of type NMTOKEN.

Name

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents names in XML. A Name is a token that begins with a letter, underscore, or colon and continues with name characters (letters, digits, and other characters). This data type is derived from token.

NCName

length, pattern, maxLength, minLength, enumeration, whiteSpace

Represents noncolonized names. This data type is the same as Name, except it cannot begin with a colon. This data type is derived from Name.

ID

length, enumeration, pattern, maxLength, minLength, whiteSpace

Represents the ID attribute type defined in the XML 1.0 Recommendation. The ID must be a no-colon-name (NCName) and must be unique within an XML document. This data type is derived from NCName.

IDREF

length, enumeration, pattern, maxLength, minLength, whiteSpace

Represents a reference to an element that has an ID attribute that matches the specified ID. An IDREF must be an NCName and must be a value of an element or attribute of type ID within the XML document. This data type is derived from NCName.

ENTITY

length, enumeration, pattern, maxLength, minLength, whiteSpace

Represents the ENTITY attribute type in XML 1.0 Recommendation. This is a reference to an unparsed entity with a name that matches the specified name. An ENTITY must be an NCName and must be declared in the schema as an unparsed entity name. This data type is derived from NCName.

integer

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents a sequence of decimal digits with an optional leading sign (+ or -). This data type is derived from decimal.

nonPositiveInteger

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer that is less than or equal to zero. A nonPositiveInteger consists of a negative sign (-) and sequence of decimal digits. This data type is derived from integer.

negativeInteger

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer that is less than zero. Consists of a negative sign (-) and sequence of decimal digits. This data type is derived from nonPositiveInteger.

long

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum value of -9223372036854775808 and maximum of 9223372036854775807. This data type is derived from integer.

int

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum value of -2147483648 and maximum of 2147483647. This data type is derived from long.

short

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum value of -32768 and maximum of 32767. This data type is derived from int.

byte

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum value of -128 and maximum of 127. This data type is derived from short.

nonNegativeInteger

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer that is greater than or equal to zero. This data type is derived from integer.

unsignedLong

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum of zero and maximum of 18446744073709551615. This data type is derived from nonNegativeInteger.

unsignedInt

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum of zero and maximum of 4294967295. This data type is derived from unsignedLong.

unsignedShort

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum of zero and maximum of 65535. This data type is derived from unsignedInt.

unsignedByte

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer with a minimum of zero and maximum of 255. This data type is derived from unsignedShort.

positiveInteger

enumeration, fractionDigits, pattern, minInclusive, minExclusive, maxInclusive, maxExclusive, totalDigits, whiteSpace

Represents an integer that is greater than zero. This data type is derived from nonNegativeInteger.

 

Defining Types

o       Simple Types – used for an element that contains only document content

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

      <xsd:element name="today" type=”xsd:date” />

      <xsd:element name="user" type=”xsd:string” />

</xsd:schema>

 

o       Defining simple types – take an existing simple type and apply a restriction using a facet

o      Facets – rules which are applied to a base type to change it in some way

Example 1:

Defining myInteger, Range 10000-99999

 

<xsd:element name="workingInts" type=”myInteger” />

 

<xsd:simpleType name="myInteger">
  <xsd:restriction base="xsd:integer">
    <xsd:minInclusive value="10000"/>
    <xsd:maxInclusive value="99999"/>
  </xsd:restriction>
</xsd:simpleType>

 

 

Example 2:

Using the Enumeration Facet

 

<xsd:element name="USA" type=”USState” />

 

<xsd:simpleType name="USState">
  <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string">
    <xsd:enumeration value="AK"/>
    <xsd:enumeration value="AL"/>
    <xsd:enumeration value="AR"/>
    <!-- and so on ... -->
  </xsd:restriction>
</xsd:simpleType>

 

 

o       Complex Types – defined using complexType element

o      May include subelements, element content and attributes

 

Sequence - Requires the elements in the group to appear in the specified sequence within the containing element.

Example 1:

Defining the USAddress Type

<xsd:complexType name="USAddress" >
  <xsd:sequence>
    <xsd:element name="name"   type="xsd:string"/>
    <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/>
    <xsd:element name="city"   type="xsd:string"/>
    <xsd:element name="state"  type="xsd:string"/>
    <xsd:element name="zip"    type="xsd:decimal"/>
  </xsd:sequence>
  <xsd:attribute name="country" type="xsd:NMTOKEN" fixed="US"/>
</xsd:complexType>

 

 

Example 2:

Defining PurchaseOrderType

<xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType">
  <xsd:sequence>
    <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="USAddress"/>
    <xsd:element name="billTo" type="USAddress"/>
    <xsd:element ref="comment" minOccurs="0"/>
    <xsd:element name="items"  type="Items"/>
  </xsd:sequence>
  <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/>
</xsd:complexType>

 

 

Attributes

o       XML Schemas can specify the types of attributes

o                      Declaring: <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/>

o       Used in above example means that all elements of PurchaseOrderType will support this attribute.

 

References

o       References an existing definition

o  e.g. <xsd:element ref="comment" minOccurs="0"/>

 

Compositors

o       Sequence - Requires the elements in the group to appear in the specified sequence within the containing element.

The root element is named "AAA", from null namespace and contains one "BBB" element, followed by one "CCC" element. Use the "sequence" pattern to specify exact order of the elements. The attributes "minOccurs" and "maxOccurs" are not necessary, because their default value is 1.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="AAA">
    <xsd:complexType mixed="false">
      <xsd:sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
        <xsd:element name="BBB" type="xsd:string"/>
        <xsd:element name="CCC" type="xsd:string"/>
      </xsd:sequence>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>
</xsd:schema>

Valid Document

 

<AAA xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
  <BBB>ZZZ</BBB>
  <CCC>YYY</CCC>
</AAA>

 

o       Restriction – limits the range of values

Here the value of the element "root" must be and integer and less than 25.


<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="root">
    <xsd:simpleType>
      <xsd:restriction base="xsd:integer">
        <xsd:maxExclusive value="25"/>
      </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>
  </xsd:element>
</xsd:schema>

Valid document:

 

<root xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >24</root>

 

o       All – sets up an unordered set of elements

The root element is named "AAA", from null namespace and contains one "BBB" and one "CCC" element. Their order is not important

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="AAA">
    <xsd:complexType mixed="false">
      <xsd:all minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
        <xsd:element name="BBB" type="xsd:string"/>
        <xsd:element name="CCC" type="xsd:string"/>
      </xsd:all>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>
</xsd:schema>

Valid document:

 

<AAA xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
  <BBB>ZZZ</BBB>
  <CCC>YYY</CCC>
</AAA>

 

 

o       Choice – creates a set of optional elements – only one option may be selected

The root element is named "AAA", from null namespace and contains either "BBB" or "CCC" elements (but not both). Use the "choice" element.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="AAA">
    <xsd:complexType mixed="false">
      <xsd:choice minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
        <xsd:element name="BBB" type="xsd:string"/>
        <xsd:element name="CCC" type="xsd:string"/>
      </xsd:choice>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>
</xsd:schema>

Valid Document:

 

<AAA xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
  <BBB>111</BBB>
</AAA>

 

o       List –

Now, we want the "root" element to contain a list of three integers. We will define a general list (element "list") of integers and then restrict it (element "restriction") to have exact length (element "length") of three items.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="root">
    <xsd:simpleType>
      <xsd:restriction base="myList">
        <xsd:length value="3"/>
      </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:simpleType name="myList">
    <xsd:list itemType="xsd:integer"/>
  </xsd:simpleType>
</xsd:schema>

Valid Document:

 

root xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >0 0 1</root>

 

o       Union

The element "root" is to be from range 0-100 or 300-400 (including the border values). We will make a union from two intervals.

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="root">
    <xsd:simpleType>
      <xsd:union>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base="xsd:integer">
            <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/>
            <xsd:maxInclusive value="100"/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base="xsd:integer">
            <xsd:minInclusive value="300"/>
            <xsd:maxInclusive value="400"/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:union>
    </xsd:simpleType>
  </xsd:element>
</xsd:schema>

Valid Document:

 

<root xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >50</root>

 

 

o       Group

To define a group of common attributes, which will be reused. The root element is named "root", it must contain the "aaa" and "bbb" elements, and these elements must have attributes "x" and "y".

 

<xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" >

  <xsd:element name="root">
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element name="aaa" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
          <xsd:complexType>
            <xsd:attributeGroup ref="myAttrs"/>
          </xsd:complexType>
        </xsd:element>
        <xsd:element name="bbb" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
          <xsd:complexType>
            <xsd:attributeGroup ref="myAttrs"/>
          </xsd:complexType>
        </xsd:element>
      </xsd:sequence>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:attributeGroup name="myAttrs">
    <xsd:attribute name="x" type="xsd:integer" use="required"/>
    <xsd:attribute name="y" type="xsd:integer" use="required"/>
  </xsd:attributeGroup>
</xsd:schema>

Valid Document:

 

<root xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="correct_0.xsd" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" >
  <aaa x="1" y="2"/>
  <bbb x="3" y="4"/>
</root>

 

Style Sheets

Tutorial 1: http://www.w3schools.com/css/default.asp

Tutorial 2: http://www.tizag.com/cssT/

 

CSS – Cascading Style Sheets –

·        HTML technology used to format XML

·        Levels: CSS1, CSS2

·        Style sheets are collections of style rules for formatting XML content marked-up by tags

e.g.

title {display: block; font-size: 36pt; font-weight: bold;

   text-align: center; text-decoration: underline}

Which XML elements to format { how to format }

selector { property: value; property: value; ... }

 

e.g.from Holzner

Style sheet: ch08_02.css

title {display: block; font-size: 36pt; font-weight: bold;

   text-align: center; text-decoration: underline}{display: block; font-size: 16pt; 

   text-align: center}{display: block; font-size: 28pt; text-align: center;

   font-style: italic}{display: block; margin-top: 10}

XML document:

<?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>

<?xml-stylesheet type="text/css" href="ch08_02.css"?>

<document>

   <title>The Discourses</title>

   <philosopher>Epictetus</philosopher>

   <book>Book Four</book>

   <paragraph>

       He is free who lives as he wishes to live; who is neither

       subject to compulsion nor to hindrance, nor to force;

       whose movements to action are not impeded, whose desires

       attain their purpose, and who does not fall into that which

       he would avoid. 

   </paragraph>

   <paragraph>

       Who, then, chooses to live in error? No man. Who chooses

       to live deceived, liable to mistake, unjust, unrestrained,

       discontented, mean? No man.

   </paragraph>

   <paragraph>

       Not one then of the bad lives as he wishes; nor is he,

       then, free. And who chooses to live in sorrow, fear, envy,

       pity, desiring and failing in his desires, attempting to

       avoid something and falling into it? Not one.  

   </paragraph>

   <paragraph>

       Do we then find any of the bad free from sorrow, free from

       fear, who does not fall into that which he would avoid, and

       does not obtain that which he wishes? Not one; nor then do

       we find any bad man free.

  </paragraph>

</document>

 

 

Background Color:

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

body {background-color: yellow}

h1 {background-color: #00ff00}

h2 {background-color: transparent}

p {background-color: rgb(250,0,255)}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<h1>This is header 1</h1>

<h2>This is header 2</h2>

<p>This is a paragraph</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

backex.html

 

Text: Color

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

h1 {color: #00ff00}

h2 {color: #dda0dd}

p {color: rgb(0,0,255)}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

<h1>This is header 1</h1>

<h2>This is header 2</h2>

<p>This is a paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>

 

textclrex.html

 

Text: Alignment

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

h1 {text-align: center}

h2 {text-align: left}

h3 {text-align: right}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<h1>This is header 1</h1>

<h2>This is header 2</h2>

<h3>This is header 3</h3>

 

</body>

</html>

 

textalnex.html

 

Font: Style

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

h3 {font-family: times}

p {font-family: courier}

p.sansserif {font-family: sans-serif}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<h3>This is header 3</h3>

 

<p>

This is a paragraph</p>

 

<p class="sansserif">

This is a paragraph</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

Fontex1.html

 

Font: Size

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

h1 {font-size: 150%}

h2 {font-size: 20px}

p {font-size: x-large}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<h1>This is header 1</h1>

<h2>This is header 2</h2>

<p>This is a paragraph</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

Fontex2.html

 

CSS Classes can give HTML multiple renderings

<html>

<head>

<style>

 

p.first { background-color: gray;  color: blue;}

p.second { background-color: red; }

p.third { background: purple;

      color: yellow;

}

 

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>CSS Classes</h2>

<p class="first">This is the p.first paragraph</p>

 

<p class="second">This is the p.second paragraph</p>

 

<p class="third">This is the p.third paragraph</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

classex.html

 

Borders:

<html>

<head>

<style>

 

p.solid {border-style: solid; }

p.double {border-style: double; }

p.groove {border-style: groove; }

p.dotted {border-style: dotted; }

p.dashed {border-style: dashed; }

p.inset {border-style: inset; }

p.outset {border-style: outset; }

p.ridge {border-style: ridge; }

p.hidden {border-style: hidden; }

 

</style>

 

</head>

<body>

 

<p class="solid">This is the solid style</p>

<p class="double">This is the double style</p>

<p class="groove">This is the groove style</p>

<p class="dotted">This is the dotted style</p>

<p class="dashed">This is the dashed style</p>

<p class="inset">This is the inset style</p>

<p class="outset">This is the outset style</p>

<p class="ridge">This is the ridge style</p>

<p class="hidden">This is the hidden style</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

borderex.html

 

Padding : Change the default padding that appears inside various HTML elements ( paragraphs, tables, etc ).

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

td {padding: 1.5cm}

td.twovalues {padding: 0.5cm 2.5cm}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<table border="1">

<tr>

<td>

This is a tablecell with padding on each side

</td>

</tr>

</table>

 

<br>

 

<table border="1">

<tr>

<td class="twovalues">

This is a tablecell with padding on each side. The top and bottom padding have the same value (0.5cm), while the left and right padding have another value (2.5)

</td>

</tr>

</table>

 

</body>

</html>

 

paddingex.html

 

Margins: define the space around elements.

<html>

<head>

 

<style type="text/css">

p.margin {margin: 2cm 4cm 3cm 4cm}

</style>

 

</head>

 

<body>

 

<p>

This is a paragraph

</p>

 

<p class="margin">

This is a paragraph with margins

</p>

 

<p>

This is a paragraph

</p>

 

</body>

</html>

 

marginex.html