SE 616 – Introduction to Software Engineering

Lecture 9

Project Management (Chapter 21)

Management Spectrum

The 4 P’s


Software Projects

Factors that influence the end result ...

Project Management Concerns

Why Projects Fail

Software Teams

The following factors must be considered when selecting a software project team structure ...

Organizational Paradigms

Avoid Team “Toxicity”

Agile Teams

Team Coordination & Communication






Defining the Problem

The Product Scope


Problem Decomposition



The Process

o    Consider project characteristics

o    Determine the degree of rigor required

o    Task set =

Melding Problem and Process

Typical Customer Communication Activity

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The Project

Common-Sense Approach to Projects

Getting the Essence of a Project (W5HH Principle - B. Boehm)

Critical Practices


Process and Project Metrics (Chapter 22)

Measurement & Metrics

... collecting metrics is too hard ...
... it's too time-consuming
... it's too political
... it won't prove anything ...

Anything that you need to quantify can be measured
in some way that is superior to not measuring it at all ...

What is a Metric?

A quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute.

Why do we Measure?

A Good Manager Measures

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Process Measurement


Process Metrics Guidelines

Process Metrics

Project Metrics

Product Metrics

Typical Project Metrics

Metrics Guidelines

Software Measurement


Normalization for Metrics

Size-Oriented Metrics

Function-Oriented Metrics - Function Points

Why Use for FP Measures?

Computing Function Points

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Sample Table for Calculating FP

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Taking Complexity into Account

(Factors are rated on a scale from 0 (Not Important) to 5 (Very Important)

data communications

on-line update

distributed functions

complex processing

heavy usage configuration 


transaction Rate

operational ease

on-line data entry

multiple sites

end user efficiency

facilitates change

Measuring Software Quality

Defect Removal Efficiency

DRE = (errors) / (errors + defects)


errors = problems found before release
defects = problems found after release

Ideal DRE = 1


Metrics for Small Organizations


Establishing a Metrics Program

Managing Variation - Statistical Process Control

The mR (moving range) Control Chart
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