SE735 - Data and Document Representation & Processing
Lecture 9 - Designing Business Processes with Patterns
Why We Use Patterns
Encourage best practices
Assist in analysis.
Encourage modularity and transparent substitution.
How We Use Patterns
· Adopt pattern (it already fits what I do)
· Adapt to pattern (change what I do to fit pattern)
· Adapt pattern (change the pattern to fit what I do)
· Invent new pattern (no pattern fits)
· Instantiate the adopted/adapted/new pattern
Patterns in Document Engineering
· The essence of Document Engineering is its systematic approach for discovering and exploiting the relationships between patterns of different types
· Working from the top down to connecting a business model to the document/process and information component level can ensure that a business model is feasible
· Working from the bottom up to establish a business model context on transactions and information exchanges can ensure that we are designing and optimizing the activities that add the most value
· These relationships between patterns "bridge the gap between strategy and implementation"
Patterns in the "Model Matrix
Read the Model Matrix Left-to-Right as:
General Pattern => Specialized Pattern => Adapted Pattern
The "Pattern Compass"
Movement from left-to-right is in the Contextualize direction - making patterns more specific (or specialized) for a particular context.
Movement in the reverse direction from right-to-left follows the Generalize direction to select patterns that are more abstract.
Movement from top-to-bottom on the Granularity dimension increases the granularity of the pattern.
Movement in the reverse direction from bottom-to-top on the Granularity dimension reduces the granularity of the pattern. We progressively hide the lower level details to create a coarser, big picture view of the pattern; now we're looking at the forest instead of the trees.
· If you are in a context where there are no existing processes or solutions, you will probably identify goal-oriented processes and more general constraints
· Your challenge will be to contextualize these general or abstract processes by identifying and applying the constraints in your target context(s)
· You have a strategic opportunity to analyze a range of potentially appropriate process patterns and select the one(s) that best satisfy the abstract goals of your business model
Contextualization and Innovation
· So Contextualization == Innovation because you will have to make choices about how to frame the context and satisfy abstract constraints with specific instances
· The pattern you choose will reinforce the context by emphasizing some requirements and rules more than others
· One pattern may better describe the As-IS model, but another might provide more insight, and a better roadmap, for getting to a TO-Be model
· In contrast, if you are evaluating or re-engineering existing processes or solutions, you will probably identify transactional processes and specific constraints on information components created or consumed by the processes
· To generalize is to take a more abstract view of something by eliminating requirements or constraints, creating a less contextualized perspective
· If generalize = de-contextualize, then we can generalize by "unapplying" the "context dimensions" from Chapter 8 and assessing whether we can ignore the requirements they had imposed
Generalizing Business Model Patterns
· You can identify business model patterns inductively, by looking at specific examples of businesses and factoring out repeating elements to identify the pattern:
· Bank in supermarket
· Fast food franchise in supermarket
· Post office in supermarket
==> Complementary product or service for supermarket customers "plugged into" supermarket
==> Complementary product or service for customers of business type X plugged into type X establishment
e.g. Generalization in a Process Pattern Repository
Varying the Granularity of Patterns
The granularity of an As-Is process model is shaped by the sources of information about processes and whether the analysis was more top-down or bottom-up.
Coarser grained models suggest patterns that encourage new specializations.
Example: (Cooking) Recipe Patterns
· A recipe describes both objects and structures (ingredients) and the processes (cooking instructions) for creating a food dish
· Recipes are typically written with narrow scope to describe how to make specific dishes
Using Pizza Patterns
· What granularity of a pizza recipe is best for teaching new employees at a pizza franchise?
· What granularity is best for differentiating pizza varieties and recognizing possibilities for new ones?
· What granularity is most likely to reveal that making pizza and making bread have something in common, yielding the hybrid model of focaccia?
Following Recipes Exactly: Implementations as Patterns
· Sometimes we want to replicate a process exactly as it has been implemented somewhere else
· This means we want to apply a physical model rather than a conceptual one and will use the same implementation technology and the specific values that fill the roles and activities in the source process
· When would we want to do this?
· What are the costs and benefits of using implementations as patterns?
"Process Rituals" and "Document Relics"
· At the time it is done, exact copying can seem easy because it isn't necessary to understand the underlying requirements and conceptual models embodied in the solution being copied
· But when the copied implementation needs to change, as it inevitably does, this lack of understanding of "what's really going on" makes it harder to know how to revise and improve it
· So sometimes processes and information models persist even though they are no longer serving much purpose
The Flavor Principle Cookbook (aka "Ethnic Cooking")
· The "flavor principle cookbook" by Elisabeth Rozin, who analyzed 30 cultures and sub-cultures to determine what patterns of flavors and spices characterize different cuisines, presents "recipes" at an abstract level to guide experimentation and culinary innovation
o Oriental cooking dominated by soy sauce (China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia) and fish sauce (Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Burma)
o Indonesia: soy sauce, brown sugar, peanut, chile
o Provence: olive oil, thyme, rosemary, marjoram, sage, tomato
o Northeast Africa: garlic, cumin, mint
· "If a pattern fits, use it" sounds like reasonable advice But how do we assess the "fit" of a pattern?
· Is it easier to adopt a pattern if there is no "As-Is" model?
· How does the abstractness of the pattern affect its applicability and fit?
Model from Scratch, or Adapt a Pattern?
The Process of Pattern Selection
· Choosing a pattern is an iterative process
· Whenever there is "business" going on almost by definition that means there are buyers and sellers, or producers and consumers. So we can apply that pattern to almost every situation to gain insights.
· Who has the power, the buyer or seller?
· Who can set standards or terms/conditions in the relationships? (who can choose the pattern?)
· Who is the authoritative source of the information involved?
· What kinds of products or goods are being "sold"
Applying Patterns to Achieve Insight
· Sometimes we can get new insights about a business problem or inefficiency by trying to apply a pattern to a context substantially different from its usual one
· We aren't likely to find a pattern that can serve as a To-Be model, because we might have to make analogical or even metaphorical assignments of activities and roles
· This is a brainstorming or "thinking outside the box" technique
Different Ways to Frame the Application of Patterns
· SELECT A PATTERN "here are some observations about the university - classes and majors are oversubscribed, some classes are underenrolled... how could you eliminate or reduce these problems?"
· INSTANTIATE A PATTERN "how is the university like a supply chain and marketplace?"
· EVALUATE AN INSTANTIATED PATTERN "can the university be viewed as a marketplace operator that indirectly distributes degrees manufactured by a school or department?"
Adapting to Patterns
· If a pattern almost fits, you can change the pattern slightly so it fits your specific requirements or you can change your requirements so that the pattern fits exactly
· How do you decide?
The Cost of Adaptation
· "Differentiation that does not drive customer preference is a liability"
· What are the costs for employees if a pattern is adapted?
· What are the costs for customers if a pattern is adapted?
· How do these costs change over the life cycle of the product/service/process?
Adapting a Pattern
· A pattern might be specified in terms of roles or elements that can be instantiated in different ways
· When does an adaptation become a pattern in its own right?
· We might adapt a recipe by applying a different set of flavor principles to an old one
· We would be inventing a new recipe if we were to come up with a new combination of spices to create a new flavor principle
Using Patterns to Suggest Information Components and Documents
Every process model needs information components that link threads of related document instances within the process.
Key Information Components:
o Identifiers for the transactions or the documents within them.
§ e.g. Purchase Order Number, Order Reference, and Invoice Numbers, or application-based, like time stamps or message identifiers.
o Identifiers for the participants in the process.
§ e.g. Social Security numbers, employee IDs, business registration numbers, or other unique or contextually unique values.
o Identifiers for the product or service that are mentioned in the transaction so that authoritative information about them can be retrieved from any process that involves it (pricing, ordering, invoicing, shipping, etc.).
o Integration or interoperability information, such as values or codes used by processing applications or ERP systems.